Who gives feedback?
- Clinicians from a range of healthcare professions
- Peers and colleagues
- The learner themselves
Archer (2010) suggests that health professions must move on from merely addressing the ‘performance gap’ to nurturing ‘recipient reflection-in-action’ – a developmental dialogue between teacher and learner. This is a key part of an integrated approach to establishing and supporting a ‘feedback culture’ in which teachers, programmes and organisations need to embed feedback activities and opportunities in day-to-day working and learning, and that feedback must be ‘conceptualised as a supported, sequential process rather than a series of unrelated events’ (2010, p106). This brings us back to the idea of a ‘learning journey’ as part of a lifelong learning approach.
In ‘Assessing Educational Needs’ we discussed the concept of teachers helping students to develop their ‘self-efficacy’ which typically involves some form of self as well as external assessment. Eva et al (2008; 2012) note the importance of framing feedback in terms of individual receivers, who will (because of personality, background, culture and experience) be very different from one another. This is not always as straightforward as it may seem because of a range of interacting factors including power relations, anxiety or cultural and personality differences.